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    Fingerprint Technology FAQ

    1) What is biometrics and what types are there?
    Biometrics is the science of measuring distinguishing biological and behavioral traits of individuals, and when identified and verified by the biometric measurements, we call it biometric authentication. The biological traits include physical characteristics such as fingerprint, iris patterns, voice waves, face, hand geometry, vein, signature, etc; and behavioral traits such as gait, signature, typing patterns etc.

    2)What kinds of indexes are used to measure the effectiveness of a biometric identification & verification system?
    A.) FAR (False Acceptance Rate): FAR refers to the likelihood that the system will incorrectly authorize and accept someone. Because a false acceptance can often lead to damages, FAR is generally a security relevant measure. FAR is a non-stationary statistical quantity, which not only shows a personal correlation, it can even be determined for each individual feature (called personal FAR).
    B.) FRR (False Rejection Rate) : FRR refers to the likelihood that a valid user is incorrectly denied access through the system. FRR is generally considered to be a comfort criteria, because a false rejection is for the most part, simply an annoyance. FRR is a non-stationary statistical quantity, which not only shows a strong personal correlation, it can even be determined for each individual feature (called personal FRR).
    C.) Failure To Enroll rate (FTE, also FER) : The FER refers to the percentage of people who fail to be enrolled successfully because they do not have sufficient sample quality. FER is a non-stationary statistical quantity, which not only shows a strong personal correlation, it can even be determined for each individual feature (called personal FER).
    D.) Threshold: as a type of reference, it is the scores that determine a templateís consistency. This can be adjusted, depending on the security level. The entire biometric recognition system is evaluated by a threshold value dealing with appropriate matching, while FAR and FRR vary, depending on the threshold value.
    E.) FTE ( Failure to Enroll ) : the enrollment error rate indicates the numerical probability of thosethat may not register because of failure to create reproducible templates. As the enrollment criteria becomes stricter, FTE increases but FRR, on the contrary, decreases.

    3)What is a "template" in a biometric recognition system?
    A template comprises the extracted, distinguished traits of the biometric data. It is generated during the process of feature extraction, which frees the raw data coming from the biometric sensor, of redundant information. In this way, both the storage requirements and the matching expense are reduced. Here, the definition of the template does not depend on its usage as reference, or for a verification request. (Several authors only call the reference template a template, the request template is called a "sample".)

    4)What are the biometric standards available now and how does the NITGEN compare to them?
    A standard specification of biometric recognition interface, BioAPI and a biometric data administration standard, X9.84 are currently registered to ANSI as standards , and the biometric data standard, CBEFF, is scheduled to be submitted to ISO. NITGEN is actively participating in the standardization with related organizations, and has already released a product that for the first time in the domestic biometric application market conforms to BioAPI.

    5)What kind of organizations manage biometric standardization?
    International : ISO/IEC JTC1 SC37 (In relation to SC17, SC27, ISO TC68 ) USA : ANSI/INCITS, ANSI/X9F4 WG, NIST, BioAPI Consortium and etc. Europe : UK BWG, TeleTrusT WG6 and etc. Domestic : TTA, KISA

    6)What are the main applications of identification and verification?
    Fingerprint recognition systems have been used in places where strict security is required, such as military units or government offices, in order to control the entering and exiting of personnel. With its proven usefulness, the use of this system has been gradually expanding to include corporations and households. In general, companies use the system for controlling electronic documents, KMS(knowledge management system) and confidential files, while private individuals use them for door lock systems with the fingerprint recognition system. Recently, as its range of applications expanded, the system came into use for mileage service, as well as identifying missing children and making electronic payments.

    7)What makes up a biometric authentication system?
    As in other biometric systems, a basic biometric system is made up of:
    a sensor to record the biometric trait a computer unit to process and eventually save the biometric trait an application, for which the user's authentication is necessary

    In detail, the processing unit comprises
    1)A "feature extraction unit" which filters the unique data out of the raw data coming from the sensor and combines them into the request template.
    2)A "matcher" which compares the request template with the reference template and delivers a "score" value as a result.
    3)A "decision unit" which takes the score value (or values) as well as the threshold to derive a two-valued decision (authorized or non-authorized).

    8)What are the major indexes indicating the efficiency of a fingerprint identification sensor?
    The indexes of image quality such as Resolution, Distortion, Contrast , Sharpness, Evenness and those of inner environment such as Static Electricity. Hardness, Temperature, Humidity and etc. are also used.

    9)What is the difference between identification and verification?
    In identification, the recorded biometric feature is compared to all biometric data saved in a system. If there is a match, the identification is successful, and the corresponding user name or user ID may be processed. In a verification, the user enters her/his identity into the system (e.g., via a keypad or card) and then, a biometric feature is scanned accordingly. The biometric trait must only be compared to the one previously saved reference feature, corresponding to the ID. If a match occurs, verification is successful. If a system has only one saved reference trait, identification is similar to verification, but the user need not enter his or her identity first, as for example, access to a mobile phone which should only be used by its owner.

    10)What are the advantages and disadvantages of verification over identification?
    Verification is much faster than identification when the number of saved reference features/users is very high. Verification is more secure than identification, especially when the number of reference traits/users is very high.

    With verification, the user, on the contrary, must first enter his or her identity into the biometric system. User ID's can be forgotten and cards can be lost, making access impossible.

    11)What is the reason for the fingerprint recognition technology being used in the SMART card?
    The financial industry is attempting to convert the current system into SMART cards because the arena of financial securities is under threat from forgers and other violators. But people in the industry understand that the SMART card is not the only method of stopping them. Hence, they started seeking a safer and more convenient security system, which used the biometric authentication system. In addition, the SMART card holds an internal microprocessor and memory, enabling users to store it in a main computer, without biometric information, without concern for individual privacy. Fingerprint is the most used authentication system, even though there are other alternatives for biometric information such as iris patterns, face and fingerprints.

    12)Does NITGEN retain a proprietary fingerprint sensor and algorithm?
    Unlike our competitors, NITGEN developed its own proprietary sensor and algorithm through the use of domestic technology, which enables us to provide the highest quality products, without having to pay royalties to other companies. NITGENís own technologies made it possible for us to constantly enhance the quality of our products, and respond swiftly the diverse demands of our customers.

    13)How do you develop application products using the NITGEN technology?
    NITGEN offers our customers various Developer Tool Kits needed for the development of applied products. They are available for purchase, at any time. Numerous partner companies, universities and conglomerates have not only used SDK (Software Developerís Kit) in application software developments that support almost every OS, but have also used DK (Developerís Kit) in developing their hardware application products.
    Last edited by ashwinipandit; 04-05-2010 at 04:52 PM.

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